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Living for the Third Time

The Lifespan of a DURO paper bag

2018 - 2019


DURO® bag is a brand of brown paper bags that constitutes 100% post-consumer fibers and labeled as 100% recyclable. Its use has dramatically increased since the negative environmental impact of plastic bags has been widely reported. It is provided at coffee shops, restaurants, and grocery stores as an environmentally-friendly alternative to plastic bags.


This project exhibits the speculative lifespan of a 100% recycled DURO® paper bag by 3D printing its potential origin, the location it was used and discarded, and the possible travel destinations after its disposal in the United States and across the globe — using the pulp of the paper bag itself. This process investigates the environmental and social impact of a single-used paper product that is actively being promoted as “Eco-friendly,” “sustainable,” and “green.” By creating the potential footprint of this paper bag and other single-use paper products alike, this project presents the idealistic view of “Eco-friendly” products and a guilt-free consumer economy. 

Project Guide
2.35" = 500'
*All facilities are 3D printed in 1 : 2500 inch scale using waste paper collected on MICA campus.
*All cardboard used are found in trash or recycling.
*All waste material produced during 3D printing are collected and applied to the Baltimore Landfill section.
*All cardboard landscape suffers from different extent of warping due to the 3D printing of the factories and waste facilities.

*Material on the cardboard landfill is excess paper paste waste collected during the 3D printing process.

*The cardboard landscape was warped due to the repeated application of waste paper.

Baltimore City Department of Public Works S Sanitation Yard

6100 Quarantine Rd, Baltimore, MD 21226

39.209154, -76.563877

Duro Bag Manufacturing Company
750 Dowd Ave
Elizabeth, NJ 07201
40.670557, -74.190989
Total Travel Distance:
203 miles
Total Travel Distance:
17.6 miles

MICA Mount Royal Station Building

1400 Cathedral St 

Baltimore, MD 21201

39.305512, -76.619947

Total Travel Distance:
2.8 miles

Baltimore Recycling Center

1030 Edison Hwy 

Baltimore, MD 21213

39.303594, -76.575450

Chinese Paper Companies

*An 40' x 8.5' shipping container is 0.192" x  0.0408" on a letter sized cardboard.

Total Travel Distance:
7347.34 miles
Total Travel Distance:
7469.73 miles


Henan Longyuan Paper Industry Co., Ltd.


Taikang Xian, Zhoukou, Henan

34.040570, 114.825504


Jiangyin Xinhao Paper Recycling Co., Ltd.

浙江省嘉兴平湖市曹桥街道 邮编:314214

CaoQiao Town, PingHu City, JiaXing, Zhejiang

31.885417, 120.248133

Global Waste Paper Trade
Interactive Map
 — potential origins and destinations of a single DURO® paper bag used in Baltimore, MD, USA
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